Understanding Ab MusclesThe area of the body commonly referred to as "the abs" is a combination of four muscles:
- rectus abdominis - runs from your rib cage to pubic bone; the upper and lower halves can be worked separately
- internal and external obliques - run from your ribs to your hips along the front of your torso
- transversus abdominis - deepest ab muscle; runs horizontally across the torso
In addition to reducing abdominal fat with diet and aerobic exercise, to effectively flatten your abdominal area, you will need to work all four muscles, on average, two to three times a week. This may sound daunting, but keep in mind strong abs don't just mean achieving a flatter belly for appearance's sake. They're also a part of good posture, help alleviate lower back pain and are an essential aspect of long-term health and well-being.
To learn more about abdominal muscles, see Abdominal Muscles: Where They Are and How They Work.
Why and How to do a CrunchOne of the best ab exercises for beginners to get started with is the "traditional" or "classic" crunch. Traditional crunches work the rectus abdominus, which is the most prominent of abdominal muscles. Working your upper and lower abs (rectus abdominus) also works the transverse abs (torso).
To do a classic crunch, lie on your back, put your feet flat on the floor, and bend your knees. Clasp your hands loosely behind your head. Tilt back, flattening your back against the floor. Slowly curl your shoulders up from the floor (about 30 degrees up), making sure you don’t pull up on your neck. Hold for about a second and then lower. Repeat for two sets (groups) of 8 to 12 reps (repetitions) and work up to three sets of 10 reps.
Why Doing it Right MattersWhile crunches may be a good exercise for beginners, they still need to be done properly. According to About.com's Guide to Sports Medicine, most people don't do crunches correctly, but it's important that you do. "Using good form when doing a crunch makes this a much more effective abdominal exercise," says the Guide to Sports Medicine. Proper technique not only impacts how effective the exercise is; doing crunches incorrectly can actually lead to back problems.
Proper Technique PointersRemember these pointers when performing crunches:
- Always exhale as you contract (bend) and inhale as you release (go back to starting position) during the crunch.
- You should never pull on your neck when doing a crunch. If you can’t clasp your hands behind your head, you can cross them over your chest instead.
- Always keep your chin a fist's distance from your chest when doing a crunch. You can actually rest your fist under your chin. Doing so keeps your head from moving (which can cause your neck to go out of alignment).
- Move slowly and continuously as you do the crunch (don’t jerk your body upwards).
- You should keep your back flat as you perform the exercise. Try imagining a huge hand is pressing you down to the floor through your back. "Pull" your belly button down toward your spine.
Variations on the CrunchOf course, working your abs doesn't begin and end with the basic crunch. By adding different versions of this tried-and-true exercise, you will be less likely to get burned out on it, you'll be able to find a format you prefer. And you'll eventually identify which bring you the results you desire (some variations are more effective than others). When you have mastered the basic crunch, try some of these below.
A study by the American Council on Exercise (ACE) found that Captain's Chair crunches, the bicycle maneuver, and ball crunches were the top three most effective ab exercises. Some variations on the crunch, such as the Captain's Chair, require gym equipment. Others can be done at home, such as the ball crunch, which is performed with the aid of an exercise ball.
Variations on the crunch include:
- Twisting crunches
- Crossover crunches
- Chair crunches (such as Captain's Chair)
- Single leg raise crunches
- Vertical leg crunches
- Knees-up crunches
- Pelvic tilts
- Reverse crunches
- Ball crunches
Don't worry about investing in a gadget from television to get your "dream abs" flattened. The ACE study found that the Ab Roller, for example, was only slightly more effective than a traditional crunch. The Ab Rocker was shown to be up to 80% less effective than a traditional crunch.
Learn More About Toning Your Abdominal MusclesTo learn more about effective abdominal exercises, see:
Anders, Mark. New Study Puts the Crunch on Ineffective Ab Exercises. Ace Fitness Matters. May/June 2001. Retrieved 5 Dec 2008. Roth, Walton, et al. Fit & Well: Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 2002.
Anders, Mark. New Study Puts the Crunch on Ineffective Ab Exercises. Ace Fitness Matters. May/June 2001. Retrieved 5 Dec 2008.
Roth, Walton, et al. Fit & Well: Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness 5th Ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 2002.